Recorded history is full of tantalising glimpses of rituals and practices that look very much like hypnosis from a modern perspective, from the “healing passes” of the Hindu Vedas to magical texts from ancient Egypt.
This was largely due to the work of therapists such as Milton H. More importantly, perhaps, hypnosis became increasingly practical, and regarded as a useful tool for easing psychological distress and bringing about profound change in a variety of situations. Advances in neurological science and brain imaging, together with the work of British psychologists Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell who linked hypnosis to the Rapid Eye Movement (REM), have also helped to resolve the “state/non-state” debate, bringing hypnosis and hypnotic trance firmly into the realm of everyday experience.
At the same time, the nature of “ordinary” consciousness is better understood as a series of trance states that we go into and out of all the time.
Inevitably, these magical trappings led to Mesmer’s downfall, and for a long time, hypnotism was a dangerous interest to have for anybody looking for a mainstream career.
Nevertheless, the stubborn fact remained that hypnosis worked, and the 19th Century is characterised by individuals seeking to understand and apply its effects.
A significant group × sex interaction effect indicated that the intervention effect was greater in boys (PDV: 7.1% in controls vs 2.7% in intervention students) than in girls (12.1% vs 11.9%).
Main effects for secondary outcomes were not statistically significant; however, sex × group analyses showed a significant difference in condom use in sexually active boys who received the intervention (114 of 168; 67.9%) vs controls (65 of 111 [58.6%]) (P Given these findings and the importance of reducing the cycle of violence, efforts to educate high school students about healthy dating relationship behaviors and ways to avoid or reduce PDV and associated risks are strongly recommended.
Because boys and girls both report perpetration of dating violence during this period of development, it is also appropriate to target universal intervention efforts to both sexes, taking into account developmental and gendered aspects of violence in adolescent relationships faced by youths of today.involves 10 classroom sessions designed to shift adolescent gender-based expectations and behavior and is one of very few school-based programs that have shown reductions in PDV longitudinally.
On the one hand, a history of hypnosis is a bit like a history of breathing.
Hypnosis itself hasn’t changed for millennia, but our understanding of it and our ability to control it has changed quite profoundly.
The history of hypnosis, then, is really the history of this change in perception.
It’s important to remember, however, that what we see as occultism was the scientific establishment of its day, with exactly the same purpose as modern science – curing human ills and increasing knowledge.